The FODMAP theory holds that consuming foods high in "FODMAPs"—short for fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides, and polyols, a collection of short-chain carbohydrates found in many common foods—results in increased volume of liquid and gas in the small and large intestine, contributing to symptoms such as abdominal pain, gas, and bloating, and the motility problems of diarrhea and constipation. The theory proposes that following a low-FODMAP diet should result in a decrease in these symptoms.
Research has also indicated there appears to be a cumulative effect of these foods on symptoms. In other words, eating more high-FODMAP foods at the same time will add up, resulting in symptoms that you might not experience if you ate the food in isolation.
In the next two sections, you will find lists of common high- and low-FODMAP foods. This list is based on the most updated research from Monash University and may change over time. In addition, you may have your own individual sensitivities to foods.
If you are interested in following a low-FODMAP diet, it is recommended that you work individually with a qualified dietary professional. There are risks to devising your own diet. It is tempting to pick certain items based on your personal preference, which could result in continued symptoms due to a lack of strict compliance to a sanctioned low-FODMAP diet. Working with a trained dietary professional will also help to ensure that you receive adequate and balanced nutrition, including a healthy intake of dietary fiber.
As with any new treatment or dietary approach, it is always best to discuss the issue with your own personal physician.
High-FODMAP Food List
The following foods have been identified as being high in FODMAPs:
Plums and prunes
High concentration of fructose from canned fruit, dried fruit or fruit juice
Milk (cow, goat, sheep)
Soft cheese, including cottage cheese and ricotta
Yogurt (regular and Greek)
Oat milk (although a 1/8 serving is considered low-FODMAP)
Soy milk (U.S.)
High fructose corn syrup
Scallions (white parts)
Sugar snap peas
Low-FODMAP Food List
The following foods have been identified as being low in FODMAPs:
Avocado (limit 1/8 of whole)
Artificial sweeteners that do not end in -ol
Dairy and Alternatives
Coconut milk (limit 1/2 cup)
Certain cheeses, such as brie, camembert, mozzarella, Parmesan
Lactose-free products, such as lactose-free milk, ice cream, and yogurt
Arugula (rocket lettuce)
Corn (half a cob)
Scallions (green parts only)
Bulgur wheat (limit to 1/4 cup cooked)
Almonds (limit 10)
Hazelnuts (limit 10)
Tofu and tempeh